Yuning Ma, Marta Venier, and Ronald A. Hites (2012). “Tribromophenoxy Flame Retardants in the Great Lakes Atmosphere.” Environmental Science & Technology 46 (24), 13112-13117. DOI: 10.1021/es3033814.
Abstract: The 2,4,6-tribromophenoxy moiety is a common structural feature of several brominated flame retardants, and we have previously reported on the environmental concentrations of one such compound, 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (TBE). Here we report the atmospheric concentrations of TBE and three other tribromophenoxy compounds: allyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (ATE), 2-bromoallyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (BATE), and 2,3-dibromopropyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE). The samples were collected at five sites near the shores of the Great Lakes during the period 2008–2009, inclusive. Of these four compounds, TBE and ATE are currently used as flame retardants, and DPTE was formerly used as a flame retardant until its production ceased in the mid-1980s. The total concentrations of ATE, BATE, and DPTE were 2 pg/m3 in the cities of Chicago and Cleveland and 0.1–0.4 pg/m3 at the rural and remote sites. The concentrations of TBE were 1 pg/m3 in these cities and 0.2–0.8 pg/m3 at the rural and remote sites. In both cases, this was a very significant urban effect. The concentrations of ATE, BATE, and DPTE did not change significantly over the two-year study, but the concentrations of TBE decreased by about a factor of 2 during this time. This temporal change was statistically significant but not strong compared to the urban effect.